Gloeophyllum sepiarium (Rusty gilled polypore) is a wood decay fungus that causes a brown rot. Gloeophyllum sepiarium grows in thin, dark brown/green brackets on dead conifers. Often found on wood in lumber yards, the fruiting body grows for only one year, and produces spores in late summer and autumn. Its hymenial surface is distinctive from other polypores due to the presence of gills. Gloeophyllum sepiarium is inedible but medicinal.
Fruiting body: up to 7 cm wide and 12 cm long; 0.5-1 cm thick; dark brown, margin orange to yellow or white when growing; fan-shaped; shelf-like; surface smooth to hairy.
Gills: densely and radially arranged, often fused together irregularly to give a maze-like appearance; ochre to brown; 1.5-2 per mm.
Spores: cylindric, 9–12.5 x 3–4.5 µm (a couple of photos of spores are available for viewing at Bioimages)
Spore print: white.
Habit and habitat: solitary or grouped on woods of conifers and hardwoods, causes brown rot. Jun-Nov.
Found throughout North America and Europe.
Uses for Dyes:
— beiges, golds, browns. https://www.namyco.org/mushrooms_to_dye_for.php
Gloeophyllum sepiarium, and Gloeophyllum trabeum species with phenolic profiles. The major compound in G. odoratum (101.6 µg/g) and G. sepiarium (92.61 µg/g) mushrooms was fumaric acid, while ferulic acid was found as the main compound in G. trabeum (11.67 μg/g). The methanol extracts of Gloeophyllum species exhibited the highest activity in CUPRAC, DPPH•, β‐carotene‐linoleic acid, and ABTS•+ assays while the n‐hexane extracts showed the highest activity in the metal chelating assay. Also, the methanol extract of G. odoratum (IC50: 32.16 ± 0.28 µg/mL) was found to be highly active than its antioxidant standard α‐tocopherol (IC50: 38.51 ± 0.54 µg/mL) in the ABTS•+ radical scavenging assay. All the studied Gloeophyllum species extracts were found to be moderate inhibitors against AChE, whereas G. sepiarium n‐hexane extract (69.70 ± 1.92%) and G. odoratum n‐hexane extract (58.08 ± 1.36%) exhibited potent BChE inhibitory activity. Practical applications The results of these studies demonstrated that the methanol and the n‐hexane extracts had a potential application as alternative natural products for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. In addition, the chemometric analysis by principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis techniques could be used for the classification of the extracts of Gloeophyllum according to their bioactivity results. This is the first comprehensive study on phenolic profiles and bioactivities of G. odoratum, G. sepiarium, and G. trabeum mushroom species.
The culture mycelia and fruit bodies of G. sepiarium showed 80% and 60% inhibition against Sarcoma 180 cancer, respectively, while the fruit bodies showed 60% inhibition against Ehrlich solid cancer (Ohtsuka et al., 1973).